Savegames

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This page describes the format of save files contained in NAND. These files are stored as completely unencrypted, plaintext data. Save files are not cleared upon creation, resulting in possible garbage data in unused portions of the container.

Main header

The header is 0x4000 bytes long.

There are 2 headers stored at 0x0 and 0x4000, presumably for commit and rollback purposes.

Decimal versions are separated as Major, Minor, Micro, and Bugfix with each using one byte. e.g. version 3.4.5.6 would be 0x03040506.

Image offset Length Description
0x000 0x100 AES-CMAC header
0x100 0x200 DISF header
0x300 0x44 Duplex header
0x344 0xC4 Integrity verification header
0x408 0x200 Journal header
0x608 0x48 Save header
0x650 0x40 Main data remap header
0x690 0x40 Meta data remap header
0x6D0 0x8 Unknown
0x6D8 0x200 Extra data A
0x8D8 0x200 Extra data B
0xAD8 0x3528 Additional storage

The additional storage at the end of the header is used to store any extra header data. This data's structure is determined by offsets stored in the main part of the header.

AES CMAC header

Image offset Length Description
0x00 0x10 AES-CMAC over DISF header (size 0x200)
0x10 0xF0 Zero padding

The final CMAC key used for this is generated using GenerateAesKek with a kek source and the device key, along with and LoadAesKey and a set key seed.

DISF

This section contains information about the structure of the save file.

Start Length Description
0x000 4 Magic ("DISF")
0x004 4 Version (Major version must be 4 or 5. Only system version 5.0.0+ can read version 5 save files)
0x008 32 Hash of start of DPFS to end of 0x4000 block (0x300-0x3FFF)
0x028 8 Main data remap mapping table offset
0x030 8 Main data remap mapping table size
0x038 8 Meta data remap mapping table offset
0x040 8 Meta data remap mapping table size
0x048 8 Main data remap offset
0x050 8 Main data remap size
0x058 8 Duplex level 1 virtual offset A
0x060 8 Duplex level 1 virtual offset B
0x068 8 Duplex level 1 size
0x070 8 Duplex level 2 virtual offset A
0x078 8 Duplex level 2 virtual offset B
0x080 8 Duplex level 2 size
0x088 8 Journal storage virtual offset
0x090 8 Journal storage data size A
0x098 8 Journal storage data size B
0x0A0 8 Journal storage journal size
0x0A8 8 Duplex master bitmap offset A
0x0B0 8 Duplex master bitmap offset B
0x0B8 8 Duplex master bitmap size
0x0C0 8 IVFC master hash offset A
0x0C8 8 IVFC master hash offset B
0x0D0 8 IVFC master hash size
0x0D8 8 Journal block table virtual offset
0x0E0 8 Journal block table size
0x0E8 8 Virtual offset of bitmap of modified physical journal blocks
0x0F0 8 Size of bitmap of modified physical journal blocks
0x0F8 8 Virtual offset of bitmap of modified virtual journal blocks
0x100 8 Size of bitmap of modified virtual journal blocks
0x108 8 Virtual offset of bitmap of free journal blocks
0x110 8 Size of bitmap of free journal blocks
0x118 8 IVFC level 1 virtual offset
0x120 8 IVFC level 1 size
0x128 8 IVFC level 2 virtual offset
0x130 8 IVFC level 2 size
0x138 8 IVFC level 3 virtual offset
0x140 8 IVFC level 3 size
0x148 8 File allocation table virtual offset
0x150 8 File allocation table size
0x158 1 Index of the active duplex master bitmap
0x160 8 [5.0.0+] File allocation table IVFC master hash offset A
0x168 8 [5.0.0+] File allocation table IVFC master hash offset B
0x170 8 [5.0.0+] File allocation table IVFC level 1 virtual offset
0x178 8 [5.0.0+] File allocation table IVFC level 1 size
0x180 8 [5.0.0+] File allocation table IVFC level 2 virtual offset
0x188 8 [5.0.0+] File allocation table IVFC level 2 size
0x200 End

Integrity verification header

  • Offsets for levels 1-3 come from the metadata remap storage
  • Offsets for level 4 comes from the main data remap storage
  • This is the same header used in NCA files
Start Length Description
0x00 4 Magic ("IVFC")
0x04 4 Version (0.2.x.x)
0x08 4 Master hash size
0xC 4 Number of levels (Unused in save files)
0x10 0x18*6 Level information for up to 6 levels
0xA0 32 Salt seed

Level information

  • 0x18 bytes long
  • Block sizes are stored as powers of 2
Start Length Description
0x00 8 Offset
0x08 8 Size
0x10 4 Block size power
0x14 4 Reserved

Journal header

Start Length Description
0x00 4 Magic ("JNGL")
0x04 4 Version (Must be 0.0.x.x or 0.1.0.0)
0x08 8 Total size (Incl. journal)
0x10 8 Journal size
0x18 8 Block size
0x20 16 Journal map header
0x200 End

Journal map header

Start Length Description
0x00 4 Version (Stored as a normal 32-bit integer. Must be 0 or 1)
0x04 4 Main data block count
0x08 4 Journal block count
0x0C 4 Padding

Extra data

Start Length Description
0x00 0x40 Save Struct
0x40 8 Save owner ID
0x48 8 Timestamp
0x50 4 Flags?
0x54 4 Unused?
0x58 8 Size of usable save data
0x60 8 Journal size
0x68 8 Commit ID
0x200 End

Remap Storage

Remap Storage is used to remap segments of data from virtual offsets to physical offsets. This allows extending the save file without having to relocate existing data.

Each Remap Storage has three components: a header, a remapping table, and the main data storage.

A remap storage can contain a varying number of segments, each representing a chunk of contiguous virtual storage. A segment can be composed of one or more entries. Each of these entries are mapped from their virtual locations to their physical locations by entries in the remapping table. A physical offset corresponds to that offset in the main data storage.

When a segment is extended a new remapping entry is appended to the physical storage, allowing expansion without relocating the existing entries.

Each virtual offset has two parts, a segment index and an offset. The size of these sections is controlled by the remap header.

Example: 0x3000000000000100
If 4 bits were reserved for the segment index, the offset would be split like this, representing offset 0x100 of segment 3.
Segment index: 0x3 Offset: 0x000000000000100

Remap storage header

Start Length Description
0x00 4 Magic ("RMAP")
0x04 4 Version (Must be 0.0.x.x or 0.1.x.x)
0x08 4 Number of remapping entries
0x0C 4 Number of remapping segments
0x10 4 Number of bits reserved for the segment index in virtual offsets
0x40 End

Remapping Entry

Start Length Description
0x00 8 Virtual offset
0x08 8 Physical offset
0x10 8 Size
0x18 4 Alignment
0x1c 4 Padding?

Duplex Storage

A Duplex Storage contains four separate elements: a header, a bitmap, and two identically-sized chunks of data.

As hinted by the name, a Duplex Storage contains two main chunks of data. To store X bytes, two chunks of data each with size X are required.

Bitmap

This main data storage is split into blocks of the size indicated in the duplex header. The bitmap contains as many bits as the main data has blocks. If the main data is 0x40000 bytes long with a block size of 0x4000 bytes, the bitmap would contain 0x10 bits.

The bitmap controls which data chunk is active for each block. e.g. If bit 3 of the bitmap is a 0 then block 3 of data chunk 0 is active and block 3 of data chunk 1 is inactive. This means that when data from block 3 is read, the data from chunk 0 will be returned and the data from chunk 1 will be completely ignored.

Hierarchical Duplex Storage

Multiple Duplex Storages can be chained together to gain various benefits. With a Hierarchical Duplex Storage, the bitmap for the main data is stored inside another Duplex Storage.

The bitmap for this second Duplex Storage is stored in a special Duplex Storage. The data of this top level contains a master bitmap that is typically 0x40 bytes long. A bit in the save file header controls which master bitmap is active.

This allows for atomic operations on the Hierarchical Duplex Storage. When writing to the storage, data will be written to the inactive blocks and inactive bitmaps. When the data is committed the bit in the save file header is flipped, changing which master bitmap is active.

Duplex header

  • Block sizes are stored as powers of 2
Start Length Description
0x00 4 Magic ("DPFS")
0x04 4 Version (0.1.x.x)
0x08 8 Master bitmap offset
0x10 8 Master bitmap size
0x18 4 Master bitmap block size power
0x1C 8 Level 1 offset
0x24 8 Level 1 size
0x2C 4 Level 1 block size power
0x30 8 Level 2 offset
0x38 8 Level 2 size
0x40 4 Level 2 block size power

Save FS

Save FS header

  • Structure is different than 3DS.
Start Length Description
0x00 4 Magic ("SAVE")
0x04 4 Version (0.6.x.x)
0x08 8 Number of blocks. Does not change if save file is resized.
0x10 8 Block Size
0x18 0x30 FAT header

File allocation table header

Start Length Description
0x00 8 Block size
0x08 8 FAT offset
0x10 4 FAT entry count
0x14 4 Padding
0x18 8 Data offset
0x20 4 Data block count
0x24 4 Padding
0x28 4 Directory table block index
0x2C 4 File table block index

Directory Table Entry

  • Index 0 is the start of a linked list that contains all invalid/inactive directories.
  • Index 1 is the start of a linked list that contains all valid/active directories.
  • Index 2 is the root directory.
Start Length Description
0x00 4 Parent directory node index
0x04 64 Filename
0x44 4 Next sibling directory node index
0x48 4 First child directory node index
0x4c 8 First child file node index
0x54 8 Unused?
0x5c 4 Next directory node index in the chain of invalid or valid directories. If this is the first block in a list of length 0, this value will contain the total number of directory nodes.

File Table Entry

  • Index 0 is the start of a linked list that contains all invalid/inactive files.
  • Index 1 is the start of a linked list that contains all valid/active files.
Start Length Description
0x00 4 Parent directory node index
0x04 64 Filename
0x44 4 Next sibling file node index
0x48 4 Index of the block that the file starts at
0x4c 8 File size in bytes
0x54 8 Unused?
0x5c 4 Next file node index in the chain of invalid or valid files. If this is the first block in a list of length 0, this value will contain the total number of file nodes.