Difference between revisions of "NPDM"

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m (update permissions bitmask, add meta flags bit4)
 
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Line 9: Line 9:
 
| 0x0
 
| 0x0
 
| 0x80
 
| 0x80
| META
+
| [[#META|META]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x80
 
| 0x80
 
| <Varies>
 
| <Varies>
| ACID
+
| [[#ACID|ACID]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <See META>
 
| <See META>
 
| <See META>
 
| <See META>
| ACI0
+
| [[#ACI0|ACI0]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 32: Line 32:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 +
| 0x4
 +
| [9.0.0+] AcidSignatureKeyGeneration (0 or 1)
 +
|-
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
 +
| 0x4
 
| Reserved
 
| Reserved
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0xC
 
| 0xC
 
| 0x1
 
| 0x1
| MMU flags (bit0 = use 64-bit instructions, bit1 = use 64-bit address space, bit2 = use 32-bit address space, bit3 = use 32-bit address space without reserved region, bit4 = optimize memory allocation?)
+
| [[#Flags|Flags]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0xD
 
| 0xD
Line 45: Line 49:
 
| 0xE
 
| 0xE
 
| 0x1
 
| 0x1
| Main thread priority (0-63)
+
| [[#MainThreadPriority|MainThreadPriority]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0xF
 
| 0xF
 
| 0x1
 
| 0x1
| Main thread core number
+
| MainThreadCoreNumber
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
Line 57: Line 61:
 
| 0x14
 
| 0x14
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [3.0.0+] System resource (PersonalMmHeap) size (max size as of 5.x: 534773760)
+
| [3.0.0+] [[#SystemResourceSize|SystemResourceSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x18
 
| 0x18
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| Version (0 for all titles prior to [[8.1.0]], 1 for certain titles since).
+
| [[#Version|Version]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x1C
 
| 0x1C
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| Main thread stack size (Should(?) be page-aligned. In non-nspwn scenarios, values of 0 can also rarely break in Horizon. This might be something auto-adapting or a security feature of some sort?)
+
| [[#MainThreadStackSize|MainThreadStackSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x20
 
| 0x20
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
| Title name (usually/always "Application")
+
| Name (usually/always "Application")
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x30
 
| 0x30
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
| Product code (usually/always all zeroes)
+
| ProductCode (usually/always all zeroes)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x40
 
| 0x40
Line 81: Line 85:
 
| 0x70
 
| 0x70
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#ACI0]] offset
+
| [[#ACI0|AciOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x74
 
| 0x74
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#ACI0]] size
+
| [[#ACI0|AciSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x78
 
| 0x78
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#ACID]] offset
+
| [[#ACID|AcidOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x7C
 
| 0x7C
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#ACID]] size
+
| [[#ACID|AcidSize]]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== Flags ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| Is64BitInstruction
 +
|-
 +
| 1-3
 +
| ProcessAddressSpace (0x00 = AddressSpace32Bit, 0x01 = AddressSpace64BitOld, 0x02 = AddressSpace32BitNoReserved, 0x03 = AddressSpace64Bit)
 +
|-
 +
| 4
 +
| OptimizeMemoryAllocation
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
== MainThreadPriority ==
 +
Ranges from 0 to 0x3F.
 +
 +
== SystemResourceSize ==
 +
This is the size of PersonalMmHeap. Maximum size as of 5.0.0 is 0x1FE00000.
 +
 +
== Version ==
 +
0 for all titles.
 +
 +
[8.1.0+] Now set to 1 for certain titles.
 +
 +
[9.0.0+] Now set to a proper version field for all titles.
 +
 +
== MainThreadStackSize ==
 +
Must be aligned to 0x1000.
 +
 +
In non-nspwn scenarios, values of 0 can also rarely break in Horizon. This might be something auto-adapting or a security feature of some sort?
  
 
= ACID =
 
= ACID =
Line 117: Line 155:
 
| 0x204
 
| 0x204
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| Data size
+
| Size
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x208
 
| 0x208
Line 125: Line 163:
 
| 0x20C
 
| 0x20C
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| Flags (bit0 = ProductionFlag, bit1 = UnqualifiedApproval, [5.0.0+] bit2-3: PoolPartition? For applets set to 0b01, for sysmodules set to 0b10. Exceptions: "starter" is set to 0, "nvservices" is set to 3)
+
| [[#Flags_2|Flags]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x210
 
| 0x210
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
| TitleIdRange_Min
+
| ProgramIdMin
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x218
 
| 0x218
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
| TitleIdRange_Max
+
| ProgramIdMax
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x220
 
| 0x220
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#FS Access Control]] offset
+
| [[#FsAccessControl|FsAccessControlOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x224
 
| 0x224
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#FS Access Control]] size
+
| [[#FsAccessControl|FsAccessControlSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x228
 
| 0x228
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Service Access Control]] offset
+
| [[#SrvAccessControl|SrvAccessControlOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x22C
 
| 0x22C
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Service Access Control]] size
+
| [[#SrvAccessControl|SrvAccessControlSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x230
 
| 0x230
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Kernel Access Control]] offset
+
| [[#KernelCapability|KernelCapabilityOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x234
 
| 0x234
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Kernel Access Control]] size
+
| [[#KernelCapability|KernelCapabilitySize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x238
 
| 0x238
Line 163: Line 201:
 
| Reserved
 
| Reserved
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
== Flags ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0
 +
| ProductionFlag
 +
|-
 +
| 1
 +
| UnqualifiedApproval
 +
|-
 +
| 2-3
 +
| [5.0.0+ ] MemoryRegion (0 = Application, 1 = Applet, 2 = SecureSystem, 3 = NonSecureSystem)
 +
|}
 +
 +
MemoryRegion is set to Application for "starter" and NonSecureSystem for "nvservices".
  
 
= ACI0 =
 
= ACI0 =
Line 181: Line 237:
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
| Title ID
+
| ProgramId
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x18
 
| 0x18
Line 189: Line 245:
 
| 0x20
 
| 0x20
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#FS Access Header]] offset
+
| [[#FsAccessControl|FsAccessControlOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x24
 
| 0x24
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#FS Access Header]] size
+
| [[#FsAccessControl|FsAccessControlSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x28
 
| 0x28
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Service Access Control]] offset
+
| [[#SrvAccessControl|SrvAccessControlOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x2C
 
| 0x2C
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Service Access Control]] size
+
| [[#SrvAccessControl|SrvAccessControlSize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x30
 
| 0x30
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Kernel Access Control]] offset
+
| [[#KernelCapability|KernelCapabilityOffset]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x34
 
| 0x34
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| [[#Kernel Access Control]] size
+
| [[#KernelCapability|KernelCapabilitySize]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x38
 
| 0x38
Line 216: Line 272:
 
|}
 
|}
  
= FS Access Header =
+
= FsAccessControl =
 +
For [[#ACID|ACID]] this is a simple descriptor as follows:
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
Line 228: Line 285:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x1
 
| 0x1
 +
| 0x1
 +
| ContentOwnerIdCount
 +
|-
 +
| 0x2
 +
| 0x1
 +
| SaveDataOwnerIdCount
 +
|-
 
| 0x3
 
| 0x3
 +
| 0x1
 
| Padding
 
| Padding
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
| Permissions bitmask
+
| [[#FsAccessFlag|FsAccessFlag]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0xC
 
| 0xC
| 0x4
+
| 0x8
| Data Size (always 0x1C)
+
| ContentOwnerIdMin
|-
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x4
 
| Size of Content Owner ID section.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x14
 
| 0x14
| 0x4
+
| 0x8
| Data size (0x1C) plus Content Owner size
+
| ContentOwnerIdMax
|-
 
| 0x18
 
| 0x4
 
| Size of Save Data owners section (for applications that wish to share save data?)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0x1C
 
| 0x1C
| 0x4
+
| 0x8
| (OPTIONAL) Amount of content owner id's
+
| SaveDataOwnerIdMin
 
|-
 
|-
| 0x1C
+
| 0x24
| 0x8 * Content Owner ID's
+
| 0x8
| Content owner ID's as uint64's.
+
| SaveDataOwnerIdMax
 
|-
 
|-
| VARIABLE
+
| 0x2C
| 0x4
+
| 0x8 * ContentOwnerIdCount
| Amount of save owner id's
+
| ContentOwnerIds
|-
 
| VARIABLE
 
| 0x1 * Save data owner accessibilities (?)
 
| Sets flags for what save data owners can do with other applications save data (?)
 
 
|-
 
|-
| VARIABLE (Pad to nearest 4 bytes)
+
| Variable
| 0x8 * Amount of save owner ID's
+
| 0x8 * SaveDataOwnerIdCount
| Save data owner ID's
+
| SaveDataOwnerIds
 
|}
 
|}
  
= FS Access Control =
+
For [[#ACI0|ACI0]] this embeds data as follows:
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
Line 289: Line 342:
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
| Permissions bitmask
+
| [[#FsAccessFlag|FsAccessFlag]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 0xC
 
| 0xC
| 0x20
+
| 0x4
| Reserved
+
| ContentOwnerInfoOffset
 +
|-
 +
| 0x10
 +
| 0x4
 +
| ContentOwnerInfoSize
 +
|-
 +
| 0x14
 +
| 0x4
 +
| SaveDataOwnerInfoOffset
 +
|-
 +
| 0x18
 +
| 0x4
 +
| SaveDataOwnerInfoSize
 +
|-
 +
| 0x1C
 +
| 0x4
 +
| (Optional) ContentOwnerIdCount
 +
|-
 +
| 0x1C
 +
| 0x8 * ContentOwnerIdCount
 +
| ContentOwnerIds
 +
|-
 +
| Variable
 +
| 0x4
 +
| SaveDataOwnerIdCount
 +
|-
 +
| Variable
 +
| 0x1 * SaveDataOwnerIdCount
 +
| Accessibilities (1=Read, 2=Write, 3=ReadWrite)
 +
|-
 +
| Variable (padded to nearest 4 bytes)
 +
| 0x8 * SaveDataOwnerIdCount
 +
| SaveDataOwnerIds
 
|}
 
|}
  
[[Filesystem_services#Permissions|Permissions]] bitmask:
+
== FsAccessFlag ==
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
! Bit
+
! Bits
 
! Name
 
! Name
 
! Description
 
! Description
Line 440: Line 525:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 34
 
| 34
| Reserved
+
| RegisterProgramIndexMapInfo
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| 35
 +
| CreateOwnSaveData
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| 36
 +
| MoveCacheStorage
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| 35-61
+
| 37-61
 
| Reserved
 
| Reserved
 
|  
 
|  
Line 455: Line 548:
 
| Enables access to everything: all [[Filesystem_services#Permissions|permission types]] which check a bitmask have this bit set.
 
| Enables access to everything: all [[Filesystem_services#Permissions|permission types]] which check a bitmask have this bit set.
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
Controls the [[Filesystem_services#Permissions|filesystem permissions]].
  
 
Web-applets permissions:
 
Web-applets permissions:
Line 461: Line 556:
  
 
= Service Access Control =
 
= Service Access Control =
This is a list of [[Services_API|service]]-name strings which the title has access to, with the following structure:
+
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
  +0: control_byte
+
|-
  +1: {service-name without nul-terminator}
+
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 0-2
 +
| Size (length of the service-name without null-terminator minus 1)
 +
|-
 +
| 7
 +
| IsServer (service is allowed to be registered)
 +
|-
 +
| Variable
 +
| Name
 +
|}
  
Bitmask 0x07 in control_byte is the {length of the service-name without nul-terminator} - 1.
+
This is a list of [[Services_API|service]]-name strings which the title has access to.
  
Bitmask 0x80 in control_byte means service is allowed to be registered.
+
The service name string starts after the first byte and supports the wildcard <code>*</code> character.
 
 
The service string can contain a wildcard <code>*</code> character.
 
 
 
= Kernel Access Control =
 
On Switch, descriptors are identified by pattern 01..11 in low bits.
 
  
 +
= KernelCapability =
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Pattern of lower bits
 
! Pattern of lower bits
 
! Lowest clear bitmask/bit
 
! Lowest clear bitmask/bit
! Type
+
! Description
! Fields
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxxxxxx0111</code>
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxxxxxx0111</code>
 
| Bit3
 
| Bit3
| KernelFlags
+
| [[#ThreadInfo]]
| Bit31-24: Highest allowed cpu id, bit23-16: Lowest allowed cpu id, bit15-10: Highest allowed thread prio, bit9-4: Lowest allowed thread prio
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxxxxx01111</code>
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxxxxx01111</code>
 
| Bit4
 
| Bit4
| SyscallMask
+
| [[#EnableSystemCalls]]
| Bits 29-31: Syscall mask table index; Bits 5-28: Mask
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxxx0111111</code>
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxxx0111111</code>
 
| Bit6
 
| Bit6
| MapIoOrNormalRange
+
| [[#MemoryMap]]
| Bits 7-30: Alternating start page and number of pages, bit31: Alternating read-only flag then MemoryAttribute 0x2001/0x42002 selector flag
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxx01111111</code>
 
| <code>0bxxxxxxxx01111111</code>
 
| Bit7
 
| Bit7
| MapNormalPage (RW)
+
| [[#IoMemoryMap]]
| Bits 8-31: Page
+
|-
 +
| <code>0bxxxxx01111111111</code>
 +
| Bit10
 +
| [8.0.0+] [[#MemoryRegionMap]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bxxxx011111111111</code>
 
| <code>0bxxxx011111111111</code>
 
| Bit11
 
| Bit11
| InterruptPair
+
| [[#EnableInterrupts]]
| Bits 12-21: Irq0, bits 22-31: Irq1, 0x3FF means empty.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bxx01111111111111</code>
 
| <code>0bxx01111111111111</code>
 
| Bit13
 
| Bit13
| ApplicationType
+
| [[#MiscParams]]
| Bit16-14: ApplicationType (0=sysmodule, 1=application, 2=applet), bit16 ignored. Parsed by [[Process Manager services]]. Defaults to 0 if descriptor doesn't exist. Can only run 1 application at a time.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0bx011111111111111</code>
 
| <code>0bx011111111111111</code>
 
| Bit14
 
| Bit14
| KernelReleaseVersion
+
| [[#KernelVersion]]
| Bits 15-X: Version. The raw descriptor is compared with 0x80000, when less than an error is returned. This is equivalent to comparing the bits starting at bit15 with 0x10. This enforces a minimum required version, not a maximum.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0b0111111111111111</code>
 
| <code>0b0111111111111111</code>
 
| Bit15
 
| Bit15
| HandleTableSize
+
| [[#HandleTableSize]]
| Bit25-16: Number of handles the table shall fit.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>0b1111111111111111</code>
 
| <code>0b1111111111111111</code>
 
| Bit16
 
| Bit16
| DebugFlags
+
| [[#MiscFlags]]
| Bit17: can be debugged, bit18: can debug others
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| All ones
 
| All ones
 
|  
 
|  
| Ignored
+
| Invalid
|
+
|}
 +
 
 +
These descriptors are identified by pattern 01..11 in low bits.
 +
 
 +
== ThreadInfo ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 4-9
 +
| LowestPriority
 +
|-
 +
| 10-15
 +
| HighestPriority
 +
|-
 +
| 16-23
 +
| MinCoreNumber
 +
|-
 +
| 24-31
 +
| MaxCoreNumber
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== EnableSystemCalls ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 5-28
 +
| SystemCallId
 +
|-
 +
| 29-31
 +
| Index
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== MemoryMap ==
 +
MemoryMap entries are stored in pairs. The first pair will contain BeginAddress and PermissionType, while the second pair will contain Size and MappingType.
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 7-30
 +
| BeginAddress
 +
|-
 +
| 31
 +
| PermissionType (0=RW, 1=RO)
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 7-26
 +
| Size
 +
|-
 +
| 27-30
 +
| Reserved
 +
|-
 +
| 31
 +
| MappingType (0=Io, 1=Static)
 
|}
 
|}
  
== Mapping restrictions ==
+
=== Restrictions ===
 
The physaddr range 0x80060000-0x2000000000 is not allowed to be mapped as IO.
 
The physaddr range 0x80060000-0x2000000000 is not allowed to be mapped as IO.
 
The physaddr range 0x80000000-0x2000000000 is not allowed to be mapped as Normal.
 
The physaddr range 0x80000000-0x2000000000 is not allowed to be mapped as Normal.
Line 549: Line 707:
 
[5.0.0+] For IO, this blacklist was abandoned and instead two range checks were added. For Normal mappings it is still applied
 
[5.0.0+] For IO, this blacklist was abandoned and instead two range checks were added. For Normal mappings it is still applied
  
== Kernel versions ==
+
== IoMemoryMap ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 8-31
 +
| BeginAddress
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== MemoryRegionMap ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 11-16
 +
| RegionType0 (0 = NoMapping, 1 = KernelTraceBuffer, 2 = OnMemoryBootImage, 3 = DTB)
 +
|-
 +
| 17
 +
| RegionIsReadOnly0
 +
|-
 +
| 18-23
 +
| RegionType1 (0 = NoMapping, 1 = KernelTraceBuffer, 2 = OnMemoryBootImage, 3 = DTB)
 +
|-
 +
| 24
 +
| RegionIsReadOnly1
 +
|-
 +
| 25-30
 +
| RegionType2 (0 = NoMapping, 1 = KernelTraceBuffer, 2 = OnMemoryBootImage, 3 = DTB)
 +
|-
 +
| 31
 +
| RegionIsReadOnly2
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
MemoryRegionMap is supported by the kernel but not by [[Loader_services|Loader]]. Thus, only initial processes may possess this capability.
 +
 
 +
== EnableInterrupts ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 12-21
 +
| InterruptNumber0
 +
|-
 +
| 22-31
 +
| InterruptNumber1
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
0x3FF means empty.
 +
 
 +
== MiscParams ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 14-16
 +
| ProgramType (0 = System, 1 = Application, 2 = Applet)
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
ProgramType is parsed by [[Process Manager services]]. Defaults to 0 if descriptor doesn't exist. Can only run 1 application at a time.
 +
 
 +
== KernelVersion ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 15-18
 +
| MinorVersion
 +
|-
 +
| 19-31
 +
| MajorVersion
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
This is compared with 0x80000, when less than an error is returned. This is equivalent to comparing the bits starting at bit15 with 0x10. This enforces a minimum required version, not a maximum.
 +
 
 +
=== Versions ===
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
Line 565: Line 802:
 
|}
 
|}
  
Bit31-19: Major version</br>
+
== HandleTableSize ==
Bit18-15: Minor version</br>
+
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
Bit14-0: Zeroes
+
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 16-25
 +
| HandleTableSize
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== MiscFlags ==
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Bits
 +
! Description
 +
|-
 +
| 17
 +
| EnableDebug
 +
|-
 +
| 18
 +
| ForceDebug
 +
|}

Latest revision as of 16:55, 1 May 2020

This is the Switch equivalent of 3DS exheader. This is the file with extension ".npdm" in {Switch ExeFS}. The size of this file varies.

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x80 META
0x80 <Varies> ACID
<See META> <See META> ACI0

META

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x4 Magicnum "META"
0x4 0x4 [9.0.0+] AcidSignatureKeyGeneration (0 or 1)
0x8 0x4 Reserved
0xC 0x1 Flags
0xD 0x1 Reserved
0xE 0x1 MainThreadPriority
0xF 0x1 MainThreadCoreNumber
0x10 0x4 Reserved
0x14 0x4 [3.0.0+] SystemResourceSize
0x18 0x4 Version
0x1C 0x4 MainThreadStackSize
0x20 0x10 Name (usually/always "Application")
0x30 0x10 ProductCode (usually/always all zeroes)
0x40 0x30 Reserved
0x70 0x4 AciOffset
0x74 0x4 AciSize
0x78 0x4 AcidOffset
0x7C 0x4 AcidSize

Flags

Bits Description
0 Is64BitInstruction
1-3 ProcessAddressSpace (0x00 = AddressSpace32Bit, 0x01 = AddressSpace64BitOld, 0x02 = AddressSpace32BitNoReserved, 0x03 = AddressSpace64Bit)
4 OptimizeMemoryAllocation

MainThreadPriority

Ranges from 0 to 0x3F.

SystemResourceSize

This is the size of PersonalMmHeap. Maximum size as of 5.0.0 is 0x1FE00000.

Version

0 for all titles.

[8.1.0+] Now set to 1 for certain titles.

[9.0.0+] Now set to a proper version field for all titles.

MainThreadStackSize

Must be aligned to 0x1000.

In non-nspwn scenarios, values of 0 can also rarely break in Horizon. This might be something auto-adapting or a security feature of some sort?

ACID

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x100 RSA-2048 signature over the data starting at 0x100 with the size field from 0x204
0x100 0x100 RSA-2048 public key for the second NCA signature
0x200 0x4 Magicnum "ACID"
0x204 0x4 Size
0x208 0x4 Reserved
0x20C 0x4 Flags
0x210 0x8 ProgramIdMin
0x218 0x8 ProgramIdMax
0x220 0x4 FsAccessControlOffset
0x224 0x4 FsAccessControlSize
0x228 0x4 SrvAccessControlOffset
0x22C 0x4 SrvAccessControlSize
0x230 0x4 KernelCapabilityOffset
0x234 0x4 KernelCapabilitySize
0x238 0x8 Reserved

Flags

Bits Description
0 ProductionFlag
1 UnqualifiedApproval
2-3 [5.0.0+ ] MemoryRegion (0 = Application, 1 = Applet, 2 = SecureSystem, 3 = NonSecureSystem)

MemoryRegion is set to Application for "starter" and NonSecureSystem for "nvservices".

ACI0

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x4 Magicnum "ACI0"
0x4 0xC Reserved
0x10 0x8 ProgramId
0x18 0x8 Reserved
0x20 0x4 FsAccessControlOffset
0x24 0x4 FsAccessControlSize
0x28 0x4 SrvAccessControlOffset
0x2C 0x4 SrvAccessControlSize
0x30 0x4 KernelCapabilityOffset
0x34 0x4 KernelCapabilitySize
0x38 0x8 Reserved

FsAccessControl

For ACID this is a simple descriptor as follows:

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x1 Version (always 1, must be non-zero)
0x1 0x1 ContentOwnerIdCount
0x2 0x1 SaveDataOwnerIdCount
0x3 0x1 Padding
0x4 0x8 FsAccessFlag
0xC 0x8 ContentOwnerIdMin
0x14 0x8 ContentOwnerIdMax
0x1C 0x8 SaveDataOwnerIdMin
0x24 0x8 SaveDataOwnerIdMax
0x2C 0x8 * ContentOwnerIdCount ContentOwnerIds
Variable 0x8 * SaveDataOwnerIdCount SaveDataOwnerIds

For ACI0 this embeds data as follows:

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x1 Version (always 1, must be non-zero)
0x1 0x3 Padding
0x4 0x8 FsAccessFlag
0xC 0x4 ContentOwnerInfoOffset
0x10 0x4 ContentOwnerInfoSize
0x14 0x4 SaveDataOwnerInfoOffset
0x18 0x4 SaveDataOwnerInfoSize
0x1C 0x4 (Optional) ContentOwnerIdCount
0x1C 0x8 * ContentOwnerIdCount ContentOwnerIds
Variable 0x4 SaveDataOwnerIdCount
Variable 0x1 * SaveDataOwnerIdCount Accessibilities (1=Read, 2=Write, 3=ReadWrite)
Variable (padded to nearest 4 bytes) 0x8 * SaveDataOwnerIdCount SaveDataOwnerIds

FsAccessFlag

Bits Name Description
0 ApplicationInfo MountContent* is accessible when set.
1 BootModeControl
2 Calibration
3 SystemSaveData
4 GameCard
5 SaveDataBackUp
6 SaveDataManagement
7 BisAllRaw
8 GameCardRaw
9 GameCardPrivate
10 SetTime
11 ContentManager
12 ImageManager
13 CreateSaveData
14 SystemSaveDataManagement
15 BisFileSystem
16 SystemUpdate
17 SaveDataMeta
18 DeviceSaveData
19 SettingsControl
20 SystemData
21 SdCard
22 Host
23 FillBis
24 CorruptSaveData
25 SaveDataForDebug
26 FormatSdCard
27 GetRightsId
28 RegisterExternalKey
29 RegisterUpdatePartition
30 SaveDataTransfer
31 DeviceDetection
32 AccessFailureResolution
33 SaveDataTransferVersion2
34 RegisterProgramIndexMapInfo
35 CreateOwnSaveData
36 MoveCacheStorage
37-61 Reserved
62 Debug See here.
63 FullPermission Enables access to everything: all permission types which check a bitmask have this bit set.

Controls the filesystem permissions.

Web-applets permissions:

  • "LibAppletWeb" and "LibAppletOff" have same access control: bit0 and bit3 set, and bit62 set.
  • Rest of the web-applets: Same as above except bit0 isn't set.

Service Access Control

Bits Description
0-2 Size (length of the service-name without null-terminator minus 1)
7 IsServer (service is allowed to be registered)
Variable Name

This is a list of service-name strings which the title has access to.

The service name string starts after the first byte and supports the wildcard * character.

KernelCapability

Pattern of lower bits Lowest clear bitmask/bit Description
0bxxxxxxxxxxxx0111 Bit3 #ThreadInfo
0bxxxxxxxxxxx01111 Bit4 #EnableSystemCalls
0bxxxxxxxxx0111111 Bit6 #MemoryMap
0bxxxxxxxx01111111 Bit7 #IoMemoryMap
0bxxxxx01111111111 Bit10 [8.0.0+] #MemoryRegionMap
0bxxxx011111111111 Bit11 #EnableInterrupts
0bxx01111111111111 Bit13 #MiscParams
0bx011111111111111 Bit14 #KernelVersion
0b0111111111111111 Bit15 #HandleTableSize
0b1111111111111111 Bit16 #MiscFlags
All ones Invalid

These descriptors are identified by pattern 01..11 in low bits.

ThreadInfo

Bits Description
4-9 LowestPriority
10-15 HighestPriority
16-23 MinCoreNumber
24-31 MaxCoreNumber

EnableSystemCalls

Bits Description
5-28 SystemCallId
29-31 Index

MemoryMap

MemoryMap entries are stored in pairs. The first pair will contain BeginAddress and PermissionType, while the second pair will contain Size and MappingType.

Bits Description
7-30 BeginAddress
31 PermissionType (0=RW, 1=RO)
Bits Description
7-26 Size
27-30 Reserved
31 MappingType (0=Io, 1=Static)

Restrictions

The physaddr range 0x80060000-0x2000000000 is not allowed to be mapped as IO. The physaddr range 0x80000000-0x2000000000 is not allowed to be mapped as Normal.

[2.0.0-4.1.0] The range for IO was changed into 0x80060000-0x81D3FFFF.

[2.0.0-4.1.0] A blacklist was added for IO and Normal mappings:

  • 0x50040000-0x50060000 (ARM, Interrupt Controller)
  • 0x6000F000 (Exception Vectors)
  • 0x6001DC00-0x6001E000 (IPATCH)
  • 0x7000E000 (RTC/PMC)
  • 0x70019000 (MC)
  • 0x7001C000 (MC0)
  • 0x7001D000 (MC1)

[5.0.0+] For IO, this blacklist was abandoned and instead two range checks were added. For Normal mappings it is still applied

IoMemoryMap

Bits Description
8-31 BeginAddress

MemoryRegionMap

Bits Description
11-16 RegionType0 (0 = NoMapping, 1 = KernelTraceBuffer, 2 = OnMemoryBootImage, 3 = DTB)
17 RegionIsReadOnly0
18-23 RegionType1 (0 = NoMapping, 1 = KernelTraceBuffer, 2 = OnMemoryBootImage, 3 = DTB)
24 RegionIsReadOnly1
25-30 RegionType2 (0 = NoMapping, 1 = KernelTraceBuffer, 2 = OnMemoryBootImage, 3 = DTB)
31 RegionIsReadOnly2

MemoryRegionMap is supported by the kernel but not by Loader. Thus, only initial processes may possess this capability.

EnableInterrupts

Bits Description
12-21 InterruptNumber0
22-31 InterruptNumber1

0x3FF means empty.

MiscParams

Bits Description
14-16 ProgramType (0 = System, 1 = Application, 2 = Applet)

ProgramType is parsed by Process Manager services. Defaults to 0 if descriptor doesn't exist. Can only run 1 application at a time.

KernelVersion

Bits Description
15-18 MinorVersion
19-31 MajorVersion

This is compared with 0x80000, when less than an error is returned. This is equivalent to comparing the bits starting at bit15 with 0x10. This enforces a minimum required version, not a maximum.

Versions

Firmware Kernel Version Minimum Allowed
1.0.0 5.0.0 3.0.0
2.0.0 6.1.0 3.0.0
3.0.0 7.4.0 3.0.0
3.0.2 7.4.0 3.0.0
5.0.0 9.3.0 3.0.0

HandleTableSize

Bits Description
16-25 HandleTableSize

MiscFlags

Bits Description
17 EnableDebug
18 ForceDebug