Internet Browser

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Nintendo Switch does not have a normal Internet Browser for user usage. However, there is multiple browser applets. It is the NetFront NX browser, which is based on Webkit.

When linking the Nintendo Account with Facebook, the Facebook Auth website will open, offering a search box that can be used to browse the Internet ("LoginApplet"). Alternatively, it can be accessed with custom DNS settings which simulate a Wi-Fi login page ("WifiWebAuthApplet" for captive-portal).

Known User Agent Strings

System Version UA String
1.0.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.4.25 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.11682
2.0.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.5.9 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.13341
2.1.0-2.3.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.5.10 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.13343
3.0.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.6.9 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.14936
4.0.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.7.9 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.15785
5.0.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.8.9 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.16739
5.1.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.9.3 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.16958
6.0.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.10.13 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.17805
6.1.0 Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/601.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/4.0.0.10.14 NintendoBrowser/5.1.0.17806

The UA is generated with: "Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo Switch; <appletname>) AppleWebKit/<webkitver> (KHTML, like Gecko) NF/<nfver0>.<nfver1>.<nfver2> NintendoBrowser/5.<ninver0>.<ninver1>.<ninver2>"

Browser Applets

appletname (From UA) Usage Invalid TLS cert handling Uses whitelist Title ID Notes
WebApplet General web-applet for use by applications(online manuals, ...). Displays an error dialog without an option to ignore it. Yes 010000000000100A
ShopN Actual eShop client Just displays an error-code. Yes 010000000000100B
WebApplet Offline HTML display 010000000000100F
LoginApplet Nintendo Account linking, and for linking Facebook and Twitter to suggest friends Just displays an error-code. Yes 0100000000001010
ShareApplet Posting screenshots to social media, and (optionally) linking social media accounts Just displays an error-code. Yes 0100000000001010
LobbyApplet Related to online-multiplayer lobbies Just displays an error-code. Yes 0100000000001010
WifiWebAuthApplet Captive-portal Displays an error dialog with an option to ignore it. No 0100000000001011

When whitelisting is enabled, you can only load page domains included in the whitelist, otherwise an error is displayed. This only applies to page navigation. Videos via the <video> tag are not affected, likewise with network requests with JS.

No known applets can directly access the SD card via mounting it. This includes ShareApplet (which posts screenshots from SD to social media).

OSS

The NROs for the OSS are stored under a separate title. All of the web-applets use the same OSS NROs via this title.

String from v2.0 in oss_wkc.nro: "libcurl/7.50.1".

Video Playback

WifiWebAuthApplet does not fully support playing videos. It will assert with normal videos. The assert triggers before it even starts MP4 parsing?(For example, selecting a video from a video-tag will assert even though it doesn't send any network request for it) However, in some cases with certain MP4s using vulns it will display an error dialog instead.

With v3.0 WifiWebAuthApplet video-playback was disabled, it now throws the following error when attempting to play a video: "Support Code: 2809-1212" "This feature is not available." On past system-versions it would just trigger a fatal-error(see above). Video playback still works on the whitelisted applets following v3.0.0, which allows video playback through Facebook and embedded into Google Sites.

Trusted RootCAs

While the rootCA(s) for Let's Encrypt isn't included, Let's Encrypt is indirectly trusted via "Digital Signature Trust Co.". This seems to be only(?) the case for WifiWebAuthApplet, hence non-WifiWebAuthApplet seems to have a different set of trusted rootCAs.

WifiWebAuthApplet

When doing a connection-test in system-settings, it will detect that the captive-portal is required and display an error for it when the response for "http://conntest.nintendowifi.net/" doesn't include the "X-Organization: Nintendo" HTTP header. The web-applet will not load until something else attempts a conntest, for example when launching eShop and prior to LoginApplet launching. The initial page loaded by this applet is the above conntest URL.

This is only available starting with 2.0.0.

Prior to version 3.0.0, this applet was launched when attempting a system update from recovery mode if needed. This was changed to display a "This feature is not available." popup instead.

Whitelisted Applets

The v2.1 main-codebin page-aligned .text size is 0x1000-bytes larger than ShopN.

The file at "data:/whitelist/WhitelistLns.txt" for LoginApplet/ShareApplet/LobbyApplet, which doesn't exist in WifiWebAuthApplet, contains the following:

 ^https://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*nintendo\.net(/|$)
 ^https?://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*nintendo\.(co\.jp|com|eu|co\.uk|es|pt|ch|at|de|nl|be|ch|ru|fr|it|co\.za|co\.kr|tw|com\.hk|com\.au|ca|co\.nz)(/|$)
 ^https?://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*nintendo-europe\.com(/|$)
 ^https?://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*nintendoservicecentre\.co\.uk(/|$)
 ^https?://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*google\.(com|ad|ae|com\.af|com\.ag|com\.ai|al|am|co\.ao|com\.ar|as|at|com\.au|az|ba|com\.bd|be|bf|bg|com\.bh|bi|bj|com\.bn|com\.bo|com\.br|bs|bt|co\.bw|by|com\.bz|ca|cd|cf|cg|ch|ci|co\.ck|cl|cm|cn|com\.co|co\.cr|com\.cu|cv|com\.cy|cz|de|dj|dk|dm|com\.do|dz|com\.ec|ee|com\.eg|es|com\.et|fi|com\.fj|fm|fr|ga|ge|gg|com\.gh|com\.gi|gl|gm|gp|gr|com\.gt|gy|com\.hk|hn|hr|ht|hu|co\.id|ie|co\.il|im|co\.in|iq|is|it|je|com\.jm|jo|co\.jp|co\.ke|com\.kh|ki|kg|co\.kr|com\.kw|kz|la|com\.lb|li|lk|co\.ls|lt|lu|lv|com\.ly|co\.ma|md|me|mg|mk|ml|com\.mm|mn|ms|com\.mt|mu|mv|mw|com\.mx|com\.my|co\.mz|com\.na|com\.nf|com\.ng|com\.ni|ne|nl|no|com\.np|nr|nu|co\.nz|com\.om|com\.pa|com\.pe|com\.pg|com\.ph|com\.pk|pl|pn|com\.pr|ps|pt|com\.py|com\.qa|ro|ru|rw|com\.sa|com\.sb|sc|se|com\.sg|sh|si|sk|com\.sl|sn|so|sm|sr|st|com\.sv|td|tg|co\.th|com\.tj|tk|tl|tm|tn|to|com\.tr|tt|com\.tw|co\.tz|com\.ua|co\.ug|co\.uk|com\.uy|co\.uz|com\.vc|co\.ve|vg|co\.vi|com\.vn|vu|ws|rs|co\.za|co\.zm|co\.zw|cat)(/|$)
 ^https://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*facebook\.com(/|$)
 ^https://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*twitter\.com(/|$)

[3.0.0+]: The "google\.(com" line now starts with "^https://" instead of "https?://", hence plain HTTP is no longer allowed. The following line was added right after the original google line: "---- ^https?://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*google(\.[A-Za-z]+)*/(search|translate)\?"

[4.0.0+]: Lines 2-4 ("...nintendo\.(co...", "nintendo-europe", and "nintendoservicecentre") now starts with "^https://" instead of "https?://". Hence, plain HTTP for these are no longer allowed.

ShareApplet

The initial page loaded by this applet depends on a flag. non-val1: "https://web-lp1.share.srv.nintendo.net/" val1: "https://web-lp1.share.srv.nintendo.net/settings/"

The server will return a HTTP 302 redirect to "https://nintendo.com/" when the specified User-Agent isn't the one for ShareApplet.

LobbyApplet

Support for Lobby was added with [2.0.0+].

The initial page loaded by this applet is: "https://web-lp1.znc.srv.nintendo.net/lobby/".

The content of the above URL refers to "rooms", "NxView_Img_Google_Play_Icon", etc.

And also:

 Your room has been created.
 
 You can invite friends to the room via
 the Nintendo Switch Online Lounge app.

ShopN

The initial page loaded by ShopN is: "https://bugyo.hac.lp1.eshop.nintendo.net/ashigaru/". This can be accessed via computer possesed the certificate ShopN.

The file at "data:/whitelist/WhitelistEc.txt", which doesn't exist in WifiWebAuthApplet, contains the following:

 ^https://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*eshop\.nintendo\.net($|/)
 ^https?://([0-9A-Za-z\-]+\.)*nintendo\.(co\.jp|com|de)($|/)

WebApplet

010000000000100A

The initial page loaded by this applet is specified by the title which launched this applet. Plain HTTP is allowed.

The files under "data:/" are identical to WifiWebAuthApplet except that the content of each file differs.

This applet uses a whitelist, but it doesn't come from "data:/" like whitelisted-applet.

WebApplet launch with Tetris

The Tetris game/demo can be used to launch the online-WebApplet. This only applies to the JPN region of the game/demo: "ぷよぷよ™テトリス®S"(aka "Puyo Puyo Tetris"). Note that the gamecard for this can be used to launch the online-WebApplet on system-version >=1.0.0.

First, launch the offline-WebApplet for the manual:

  • Game: Main-menu -> press A with the already selected top menu button -> press the R button.
  • Demo: Main-menu -> select menu button on the right side -> press A.

Then in the manual:

  • Press A -> select the bottom menu entry in the list.
  • Select the SEGA icon -> press A.

The offline-WebApplet will then launch the online-WebApplet with the plain-http "http://sega.jp/" URL. Non-JPN regions of Tetris don't have any external link in the manual. For example, with your own DNS-server setup to return your own server address for this domain, you can load your own content for use with online-WebApplet.

As of 12/01/2017 this still works on the latest update for Tetris (version 1.1.2).

Offline Applet

Minus TIDs, the NPDM is the same as 010000000000100A except 010000000000100A has access to more/other services.

Service/FS Access

All browser applets have access to the following services: acc:u1, appletAE, audin:u, audren:u, audout:u, bsd:u, fatal:u, fsp-srv, hid, hid:sys, irs, ldn:m, ldr:ro, lm, erpt:c, nifm:s, ns:am, nsd:u, nvdrv:a, mm:u, pl:u, prepo:s, set, set:sys, sfdnsres, ssl, time:u, vi:s

LoginApplet/ShareApplet/LobbyApplet have access to the above + caps:a.

ShopN has access to the above + nim:shp.

Unlike the applets listed above, WebApplet TID 010000000000100A has access to the FS MountContent* commands. This is so that it can load the whitelist from "/accessible-urls/accessible-urls.txt" in the mounted FS, from NCA-type4 where titleID={application which launched this applet}.

Heap

The size used for svcSetHeapSize by the web-applets is 0x15600000. Under ShopN, the largest size that can be passed to this without an error being returned, is 0x1B400000.

Applet Launching

The web-applets are launched using a storage containing the input arg data, on exit the output storage contains the "*ReturnValue" reply data struct. The output struct is specific to each applet.

Library Applet Versions

System Version Value
[1.0.0+] 0x20000
[3.0.0+] 0x30000
[5.0.0+] 0x50000

The above only (?) applies to non-WebWifi. WebWifi uses version 0x0.

ShimKind

This enum is "nn::web::common::ShimKind".

This indicates the type of web-applet.

Value Name
2 Login
4 Share
5 Web
6 Wifi
7 Lobby

WebWifiPageArg

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x4 Official sw sets this to 0 with appletStorageWrite, separately from the rest of the config struct.
0x4 0x100 URL used for the connection-test requests.
0x104 0x400 Initial URL navigated to by the applet.
0x504 0x10 Account userID, 0 for common.
0x514 0x4 Unknown, this can be 0.

This is the input struct for WifiWebAuthApplet. This is a total of 0x518-bytes.

WebWifiReturnValue

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x4 ?
0x4 0x8 Result

This is the output struct for WifiWebAuthApplet. This is a total of 0x8-bytes.

WebCommonReturnValue

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x4 u32 exitReason
0x4 0x4 Padding
0x8 0x1000 lastUrl string
0x1008 0x8 lastUrlSize

This is the 0x1010-byte output storage used by all non-WebWifi applets - except for Share which returns a TLV storage (on [3.0.0+] at least?).

WebArgHeader

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x2 Total #WebArgTLV entries following this struct.
0x2 0x2 Padding
0x4 0x4 #ShimKind

This is the header struct at offset 0 in the input web Arg storage for non-WebWifi. This is a total of 0x8-bytes. The total storage size used for input/output TLVs is 0x2000.

WebArgTLV

Offset Size Description
0x0 0x2 Type of this arg.
0x2 0x2 Size of the arg data following this struct.
0x4 0x4 Padding

Web TLV used in the input web Arg storage, after #WebArgHeader. This is a total of 0x8-bytes.


TLVs

All strings are NUL-terminated.

Input TLVs

System Version Applets Type Size Value Description
[1.0.0+] 0x1 0xC00 string Initial URL
[1.0.0+] 0x3 0x400 string CallbackUrl
[1.0.0+] 0x4 0x400 string CallbackableUrl
[1.0.0+] 0xA 0x1000 string Whitelist
[1.0.0+] 0xE 0x10 userID userID
[1.0.0+] 0x11 0x1 u8 bool EcClientCertEnabled
[1.0.0+] 0x12 0x1 u8 ?
[1.0.0+] 0x14 0x1 u8 ?
[1.0.0+] 0x15 0x1 u8 ?
[1.0.0+] 0x17 0x4 u32 enum WebBootDisplayKind BootDisplayKind
[1.0.0+] 0x18 0x4 u32 enum *BackgroundKind BackgroundKind
[1.0.0+] 0x19 0x1 u8 bool FooterEnabled
[1.0.0+] 0x1A 0x1 u8 bool PointerEnabled
[1.0.0+] 0x1B 0x4 u32 enum *LeftStickMode LeftStickMode
[1.0.0+] 0x1C 0x4 s32 KeyRepeatFrame, first param
[1.0.0+] 0x1D 0x4 s32 KeyRepeatFrame, second param
[1.0.0+] 0x1E 0x1 u8 bool Set after BootAsMediaPlayer with the value inverted.
[1.0.0+] 0x1F 0x1 u8 bool DisplayUrlKind (value = (input_enumval==0x1))
[2.0.0+] 0x21 0x1 u8 bool BootAsMediaPlayer
[2.0.0+] 0x22 0x1 u8 bool SetShopJumpEnabled
[2.0.0+] 0x23 0x1 u8 bool MediaPlayerUserGestureRestrictionEnabled
[2.0.0+] 0x24 0x100 string LobbyParameter
[3.0.0+] 0x27 0x1 u8 bool JsExtensionEnabled
[5.0.0+] 0x2F 0x1 u8 ?
[5.0.0+] 0x31 0x1 u8 bool When set, indicates the whitelist for YouTubeVideo should be used (loaded from web-applet RomFS).
[5.0.0+] 0x32 0x4 u32 enum *WebFooterFixedKind FooterFixedKind
[5.0.0+] 0x33 0x1 u8 bool PageFadeEnabled
[5.0.0+] 0x36 0x1 u8 bool PageScrollIndicatorEnabled

Output TLVs

System Version Type Size Value Description
[3.0.0+] ? 0x1 0x4 u32 ShareExitReason
[3.0.0+] ? 0x2 string LastUrl
[3.0.0+] ? 0x3 0x8 u64 LastUrlSize
[3.0.0+] ? 0x4 0x4 u32 SharePostResult
[3.0.0+] ? 0x5 string PostServiceName
[3.0.0+] ? 0x6 0x8 u64 PostServiceNameSize
[3.0.0+] ? 0x7 string PostId
[3.0.0+] ? 0x8 0x8 u64 PostIdSize

These are used for Share-applet.

Versions

1.0.0

"shareddata:/buildinfo/buildinfo.dat" content:

 r:11682
 p:NX64
 v:Pilot
 d:2016-11-25 23:30
 n:0.4.25

2.0.0

"shareddata:/buildinfo/buildinfo.dat" content:

 r:13341
 p:NX64
 v:Release
 d:2017-02-13 22:57
 n:0.5.9
 

2.1.0

See here for vuln-related changes.

The WebKit NRO was updated. For the WebKit NRO, the page-aligned size for the R-X, R--, and RW- pages are the same as v2.0.

  • The actual code in the NRO starts differing starting at offset 0xE780. In v2.0 the offset following the last code instruction is text_lastpage+0x3F8(text_end-0xC08), while for v2.1 it's text_lastpage+0xE60(text_end-0x1A0). Compared to the previous version, there's a val0 u32(padding) inserted where the code for the import stubs begin, near the end of .text. Relative to that end offset going backwards, .text differs starting at v2.0 textbase+0xD56530 / v2.1 textbase+0xD56F94.
  • The R-- section was updated. Besides the large table(?) which was updated(nothing was added/removed there), the strings containing "D:/for_cruiser/release_182/nx/webkit/" were updated: "182" was changed to "189". 0x10-bytes at offset 0x57292C were removed. 0x8-bytes were inserted at offset 0x14B2B5C in the v2.1 section. 0x8-bytes were inserted at offset 0x14B5C10 in the v2.1 section. ...
  • The RW- section was updated, mainly for different addrs. Nothing was added/removed. Most(?)/all(?) main-codebin func import-addrs relative to main-codebin-base are the same as v2.0.

Main-codebin region(titleID 010000000000100B):

  • rtld is same as before basically, minus addrs. Likewise for the "nnSdkEmpty" binary following the main-codebin.
  • Various byte values were changed in the main .text.
  • In the main R-- section:
    • The length of a string used with the user-agent changed, due to being changed from "{...}.9" to "{...}.10".
    • The version in the following string was changed from "1.2.2" to "1.2.3": "FS_ACCESS: { sdk_versio n: 1.2.3, spec: NX }"
    • The datetime strings following "b/23876444" was changed from "Feb 10 2017" "02:24:47" to "Mar 9 201 7" "21:41:27".
    • A 0x10-byte block prior to SDK library tag strings was updated. The version in those strings was changed from "1_2_2" to "1_2_3".
  • The main RW- section appears to be basically the same minus addrs.

All of the other NROs were updated in FS with only the following changes:

  • The R-X section is identical to the previous version except for the 0x10-byte block in the NRO header.
  • The R-- section only had version values in "/release_{ver}/" strings updated, see the for_cruiser path mentioned for WebKit NRO above. The only other change was that a 0x10-byte block following a "GNU" string was updated.

FS

The content of "blacklist:/" and "oceanShared:/" haven't changed. Only the content of "shareddata:/" and "data:/" changed.

"shareddata:/"

The following files were updated here(nothing added/removed):

  • /buildinfo/buildinfo.dat
  • /dll/cairo_wkc.nro
  • /dll/libfont.nro
  • /dll/oss_wkc.nro
  • /dll/peer_wkc.nro
  • /dll/webkit_wkc.nro

That is, every .nro under the above directory was updated.

"shareddata:/buildinfo/buildinfo.dat" content:

 r:13343
 p::NX64
 v:Release
 d:2017-03-14 21:08
 n:0.5.10
"data:/"

The following files were updated here(nothing added/removed):

  • /.nrr/netfront.nrr
  • /buildinfo/buildinfo.dat

3.0.1

While main-codebin .text was updated, no actual code was changed.

The .nss path string in main-codebin was changed from "Q:\work\LibraryApplet\..." to "Q:\work\nup\LibraryApplet\...".

See here regarding "shareddata:/" buildinfo.

5.0.0

Support for YouTubeVideo was added, and new #TLVs etc.

In RomFS "/whitelist/WhitelistYouTubePlayer.txt" was added for the YouTubeVideo whitelist, which contains the following: "^https://www\.youtube\.com/embed/". This file has the same content on 7.0.x.